Thursday, December 12, 2019
John Holland and the Personality Theory of Career Satisfaction free essay sample
A simple example is that of a naturally creative person who lands a fulfilling job in the arts. Holland (1992) identified six personality types and their best job matches in his career satisfaction theory. You will note in Table 2. 1 that some professions appear in more than one category; this is not unusual. Professions may offer several major rewards, each of which may appeal to different personality types. For example, an elected government official may feel most rewarded by helping others, by the power of the office, or by the chance to solve complex problems. Table 2. 1 is certainly not inclusive of all the jobs offering rewards for each personality type. In addition, peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s personalities are seldom totally dominated by one type, so multiple characteristics are likely to lead to a number of satisfying careers. Table 2. 1 John HollandÃ¢â¬â¢s Personality Types| Personality Type | Characteristics | Matching Careers | Realistic | Likes to solve concrete problems, work with hands and tools, do physical labor, is practical. We will write a custom essay sample on John Holland and the Personality Theory of Career Satisfaction or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Social activity jobs do not appeal. | Firefighter, repair and construction, farmer, rancher, forestry, athlete, physical therapist, police officer, soldier, engineer, architect | Investigative | Likes to solve puzzles and discover relationships, enjoys math or science ideas, values scientific and intellectual jobs. Enjoys exploration of places and ideas. Selling or leading does not appeal. | Lawyer, psychologist, reporter, scientist, engineer, computer scientist, professor, mathematician, finance, physician | Artistic | Likes creative jobs, especially in the arts, values opportunities for self-expression, creativity and independence. Highly structured, repetitive jobs do not appeal. | Actor, artist, author, dancer, graphic designer, fashion designer, model, marketer, public relations, musician, set designer, omposer, radio or TV personality, teacher in the arts field | Social | Enjoys solving social problems and interacting with others in a cooperative manner. Jobs involving machines, animals, or isolated work do not appeal. | Doctor, nurse, teacher, therapist, theologian, human relations, trainer, education, nutritionist, psychologist | Enterprising | Likes to persuade others, selling things and ideas; enjoys leading others and being in charge; values jobs emphasizing energy, ambition, competition, and social interaction, creating n ew businesses or opportunities. Solitary jobs that do not influence do not appeal. | Politician, lawyer, corporate or nonprofit manager, executive, stockbroker, public relations, salesperson, insurance agent, administrator, realtor, retail store manager or owner | Conventional (organizer) | Likes to work with numbers or records in a neat, orderly way. Values good organization and jobs emphasizing systematic approaches and concrete plans. Jobs that require ambiguous ideas or unstructured activities do not appeal. Accountant, payroll clerk, copyeditor, actuary, CPA, proofreader, technical writer, investment banker, chief financial officer, bank clerk, administrative assistant | Too often, young people select professions simply because they are easy, seem glamorous, or offer the potential for quick riches. They make their choice without knowing the personality attributes required to have long-term success. We have a tendency to fool ourselves into believing what we want to believe or what others, like parents, want us to believe. For example, a student may want the big money a stockbroker makes but hates dealing with people and trying to sell. There is seldom a perfect correlation between the job and the workerÃ¢â¬â¢s personality; all jobs have positives and negatives for any worker. A job may provide the creative outlet for an artistic personality but not offer the financial rewards needed to have a pleasant life. Overall there seems to be a relatively low correlation between job satisfaction and HollandÃ¢â¬â¢s personality attributes, either due to the multiple positive and negative aspects of jobs or the inaccuracy of the theory. Unfortunately, many people dont think about matching their personality needs to their careers until it is too late. They just drift into a career or focus on the potential earnings or the convenience of a job. Then they wonder why they donÃ¢â¬â¢t feel satisfied. The MyersÃ¢â¬âBriggs Type Indicator instrument that you were exposed to in Chapter 1 is a standard way to evaluate the match between personality and career. The link that follows will take you to another test that is supposed to give you results similar to the MyersÃ¢â¬âBriggs inventory: http://similarminds. com/career. html. It will also show you some possible careers based on your answers. As before, these tests are included only to give you ideas; do not make any career choices based solely on these results. To come full circle, eclectic theories use the information about the elephantÃ¢â¬â¢s trunk, leg, ears, and so forth to create a composite that resembles a large animal. For example, VygotskyÃ¢â¬â¢s idea of social interaction in cognition complements BanduraÃ¢â¬â¢s theory of social learning. As alluded to earlier, Bronfenbrenner and Piaget can be integrated to explain how children at different stages of cognitive development may interpret divorce or social influences differently. This interdisciplinary approach also looks at what contributions may be made by related fields like anthropology and biology too. The hope is that the resultant salad theory composed of pieces of many theories will do a better job of explaining actual human behavior and development. As you have read, each theorist touches a different part of the elephant that we call our personality. There is no one unified theory of personality development; human beings are far too complex and different. Like the eclectic theorists, you need to be like a visitor to the elephant, taking some ideas from every area that seems relevant to you. Sometimes the applications are not immediately clear, and that is why weÃ¢â¬â¢ve asked you to reflect on it throughout the chapter to help you see the relevance. As you progress through this text, you will see how the theories help you understand your own development. Take some time to explore each of the questions below. The insights that you gain will help you better understand yourself, those around you, and the future that will make you happy. * Which theory that you have studied could you best relate to? Describe why and think of examples in your life. Do you believe others close to you would agree? * Give some detailed examples of different theories that help you to better understand the thoughts and behaviors of your parents, siblings, or close friends. * Describe your own development in terms of EriksonÃ¢â¬â¢s stages. * In BronfenbrennerÃ¢â¬â¢s ecological theory, he suggests that our development is influenced by a wide range of sources, from family and friends to society and culture. Review his ideas and then decide how your development has been influenced by the rings, or systems, of influence as he suggests. What influences were the strongest? The weakest? Be careful as you think about this; some influences can be so pervasive that we are simply unaware of their influence. * How can you use what youÃ¢â¬â¢ve discovered about yourself to improve your current outlook and move toward your goals? How will you overcome the challenges that you are likely to face in the current stage of your life?